A Billion Trips a Day: Tradition and Transition in European by Piet H. L. Bovy , Jean-Pierre Orfeuil Ilan Salomon

By Piet H. L. Bovy , Jean-Pierre Orfeuil Ilan Salomon

A Billion journeys an afternoon: culture and Transition in eu TravelPatterns comprises twenty-four unique chapters constructed by means of a community of shipping execs in a coordinated demeanour. the 3 components of the e-book are: eu Mobility styles; Dimensions of ecu Mobility, and nationwide views. Mobility in fourteen nations is defined and ten chapters of research examine the foremost dimensions of shuttle throughout Europe, that is visible as a laboratory for delivery guidelines.
A Billion journeys an afternoon: culture and Transition in eu TravelPatterns questions the individuality of eu shuttle and delivery rules and demonstrates that, in lots of methods, Europe isn't the same as different constructed economies. despite the fact that, there are aspect dissimilarities inside Europe. The authors take a deep examine the underlying components which have an effect on go back and forth habit, with the target of delivering the required info for coverage making. The comparative chapters of half II supply an research in accordance with nationwide views of the function of the time measurement commute; car possession and use; commuting; public shipping; and foreign trip. additionally they evaluation the delivery rules utilized in Europe, explaining why a few rules paintings in a few areas, whereas failing in others.

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The share of the private car is increasing from 79 % to 83 %. 3 %) by a significant margin. 0% per annum) is slightly higher than that of personal mobility by car: the car occupancy rates are on a decreasing trend, in relation to decreasing household's sizes and increase in multi-car ownership, with three exceptions only: Denmark and Italy, two countries with high car related costs, and UK, probably related to the decrease of the public transport supply and patronage. Looking at each country separately, or at specific clusters, reveals interesting differences: The growth of personal mobility is lower in Central or Northem Europe than in Mediterranean countries.

Both the fixed and variable car costs are more than twice as high in one country compared to another. Denmark is well known for its extremely high fixed costs (because of car taxes), whereas Italy ranks first in variable costs (due to fuel taxes and tolls). Ausual ratio for new car prices of given car types varies from one to three (low in West-Germany and Switzerland versus high in Greece). 2 shows differences in car cost structure in 1989 (new car purchase price versus fuel price) for a se1ection of European countries, based on relative purchasing power parities (Netherlands is arbitrarily chosen as a base = 100).

Thus, complex patterns are becoming common. Home ownership patterns and multiple workers per household introduce arestraint or a delay in the possible adjustment of home location to job relocation or vice versa. Furthermore, in many of the countries, tax allowances for home purchase and for commuting expenses encourage suburbanization and longer travel, being detrimental to transportation policies and environmental objectives. In many countries, employers are affecting transportation too by providing company cars or assisting in car maintenance and parking costs.

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