A textbook of organic chemistry by Chamberlain JS

By Chamberlain JS

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Vardeny, Nature 409, 494 (2001). [40] (a) M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 395, 151 (1998); (b) D. F. O’Brien, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 442 (1999). [41] T. -J. Yang, M. Yahiro, K. Nakamura, T. Watanabe, T. Tsuji, Y. Fukuda, T. Wakimoto, and S. Miyaguchi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1502 (1999). [42] C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 8049 (2000). [43] J. Staudigel, M.

5. 15ηPL . 9 Degradation Mechanisms The stability of OLEDs is obviously a key element in determining their technological impact. 150 We now briefly review these mechanisms. Dark spot formation One of the most prominent mechanism of degradation in OLEDs is through the formation of non-emissive “dark” spots along with a long-term decrease in the device efficiency. As found for both OLEDs151 and PLEDs,152 these defects result from delamination of the metal at the organic/metal interface initiated by pinholes on the cathode in the presence of significant Joule heating.

1, respectively. 38 This factor is optimized by varying the composition and thickness of the HTLs and ETLs, and monitoring the response of the I (V ) and IEL (V ) curves to these variations. For practical display devices however, there exists a certain tradeoff between a low turn-on voltage on the one hand, and high efficiency on the other. Hence considerable effort is being invested into promoting the injection of both types of carriers in order to restrict not only the active matrix but in particular passive matrix driving circuitry to lower operating voltages.

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