Abrégé d'histoire du climat : Du Moyen Âge à nos jours by Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie

By Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie

Brillante et courte synthèse, suggestive et instructive, des résultats de près d’un demi-siècle de recherches historiennes sur le climat.

Un élément essentiel dans les débats en cours sur l’avenir de los angeles planète.

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Extra info for Abrégé d'histoire du climat : Du Moyen Âge à nos jours

Sample text

45The dyadic character of the chain of being is one which effects a specification and division amongst 8 Arabic. Thought: Hierarchy, Substance and Combination classes of elements belonging to the chain, but this division is not absolute and does not sunder the essential generative unity, the unity of dependence and hierarchy, which fashions the chain. Man lies at the confluence of these two classes of things. He is body and soul: body in so far as he is the terminal point in the ascension of corporeals to higher stations, and soul in as much as he is the terminal point reached by incorporeal substances in their descent from the more absolute realms of sublimity.

This is what Ghazili (d. 50511 1 1 1) meant when he declared that matter is every object capable of acquiring an entelechy when associated with something apart from itself. This raw material of all generational processes was termed matter, hyle, or other names by the philosophers. The philosophers' adversaries, and mainly Ash'arite theologians, ascribed the same properties to what they conceived to be the original material out of which all things are fashioned: the atom, literally 'individual substance' oawhar fard), or 'indivisible single substance' oawhar wiihid ghair munqasim), or again and very commonly the 'indivisible part or component' (al-juz ' alladhi liz yatajazza ').

156 Every being is, then, the conjunction of a recipient and an inherent - and we except the ultimate actor and the telosl" for the moment, which are directly divine with the Ash'arites, and only mediately so with the philosophers. Kalizm sensitivities to using the term 'nature' notwithstanding, we can say that everything which comes to pass in the material world, and all knowledge of the world of corporeals, rests on two fundamental notions which transcribe into the immediate realm of visible nature the basic ontological structure of all creatures in Arabic thought: element and quality,'58 into which their sister dyads ultimately collapse, such as substance and accident, form and matter, quality and matter, recipient and inherent.

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