An Introduction to Cryptology by Henk C. A. van Tilborg (auth.)

By Henk C. A. van Tilborg (auth.)

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O) oflength 12 , with alon coordinate n, has length li' It remains to show that no fu can be the prefix of a codeword f •. Suppose the contrary. Clearly 1" 1•• So 1" < 1. and thus u < v. -1 L -/. - L -/. = L -/ ~ -I-o ;=1 2 J ;=1 2 J o A contradiction! 3 resp. 6 are the same. D. codes is equal to the smallest expected value of the length among alI prefix codes! D. codes. D. code with codewords fi of length li for the messages mi that occur with probability Pi, 1::;;; i ~ n. ). Pi· In--/. -/ In2 i=12 i In2 i=1 Pi.

N stages, both with a primitive characteristic polynomial and with a non-zero starting state. 2) Choose h distinct elements from {O, 1•.... m - 1} and order them, say O~ il < i 2 < . < ih < m. A restriction on the size of h follows in 3). • a;~ (t» of inputs at time t defines the value 35 Shift Register Sequences When h < m, N (t) can have any value in {O, 1, . . ies in {1,2, ... 3) ,2h - 1}. Let 't be any one-ro-one mapping from {O,l, ... , 2h and from {1,2, ... ,2h - - 1} into {O,l, ... , n - Il.

1). Although the keysize is 64, the effective keysize is 56 bits. The remaining 8 bits are parity checks. The input M and key K result in a ciphertext C, which we shall denote by DES (M ,K). For the decryption the same DES chip with the same key can be used, as we shall see later. 1 is of course that the same input will yield the same output, when using the same key. This is often undesirable. An eavesdropper that observes how the receiver responds to a certain message can predict that same response when the same ciphertext is transmitted.

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