Artificial Reefs in European Seas by Ehud Spanier (auth.), A. C. Jensen, K. J. Collins, A. P. M.

By Ehud Spanier (auth.), A. C. Jensen, K. J. Collins, A. P. M. Lockwood (eds.)

Artificial Reefs in ecu Seas specializes in man made reef examine within the Mediterranean and NE Atlantic. The booklet describes lots of the long term tasks working in ecu seas, provides the criminal and fiscal concerns, and indicates destiny makes use of for man made reefs within the ecu context.
Readership: execs engaged on or drawn to the makes use of of synthetic reefs for fishery administration, coastal area administration, aquaculture and nature conservation. The case experiences of reef learn programmes make the e-book perfect for measure scholars learning themes in ecology, and fisheries and coastal management.

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The automatic food dispenser is shown in the box. Pholas dactylus culture Since 1992, settlement and growth of the boring edible bivalve P. , 1995) inhabited by Pholas. Results Porto Recanati The biomass of mussels that settled on block surfaces was estimated at about 80-100 kg m-2 in the summer of 1977, two and a half years after reef deployment. Biomass stabilized at about 50 kg m-2 in the years 1977-80. The commercial production of the whole reef was about 200-250 tonne yrl in the first 3 years and 160 tonne yrl in the following 4 years.

1995a. Artificial reefs in a biogeographically changing environment. Proceedings of ECOSET '95, International Conference on Ecological System Enhancement Technology for Aquatic Environments. Vol. II. Japan International Marine Science and Technology Federation, Thkyo, pp. 543-547. Spanier, E. 1995b. Do we need special artificial reefs for lobsters? Proceedings of ECOSET '95, International Conference on Ecological System Enhancement Thchnology for Aquatic Environments. Vol. II. Japan International Marine Science and Technology Federation, Tokyo, pp.

An alternative explanation could be that the mussels were killed by starfish, as happened to the Ostrea. Culture of mussels is considered to be more successful on 28 A. L6k and A. Tokat; 'mussel ropes' fastened between reefs rather than harvesting directly from reef surfaces, because the predation pressure is so high (Fabi and Fiorentini, 1989) on reef substrata. Ardizzone et al. (1989) suggested that reef blocks should be removed from the water periodically to kill epifauna and promote effective colonization by mussels for culture or that removable substrata are used for mussel culture.

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